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Introduction

The Human Gut Microbiome Atlas (HGMA) provides i) quantitative information of global shotgun metagenomics of human gut microbiome ii) function/phenotype information of the human gut-associated metagenomic species pan-genomes (MSP) and iii) provide global map of human gut microbiome. Global shotgun metagenomics of normal human gut microbiome from 18 countries are presented with i) species abundance, ii) gene richness and iii) enterotypes. In addition, comprehensive analysis enabled the identification of species enriched/depleted in 20 different diseases with functions/phenotype of respective species, detailing the dysbiosis in gut microbiome composition.


Geography

Global shotgun metagenomics provide a detailed understanding of regional variations of human gut microbiome similar to the genetic variations between different human populations. The Human Gut Microbiome Atlas presented the species abundance of 19 countries in five different continents. Navigating the list of region-enriched or disease-associated species, variations of normal and disease populations can be explored at the species summary page.


Species

Human gut provides a particular ecological niche that harbours the dense microbial communities, e.g., Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. This complex ecosystem plays a key role in maintaining the host physiology such as host metabolism and immune system, fermenting nondigestible fiber and providing barriers to pathogens. The Human Gut Microbiome Atlas presents the diversity of human gut microbiome as Tree of Life, so species of particular interest can be explored together with associated function and phenotype at the species summary page. In addition, based on Markov Chain modelling, temporal characteristics of species, inflow and outflow, were estimated and presented together with other functional/phenotypic information.


Diseases

Human gut microbiome in normal condition is resilient to external perturbation and its imbalance, called dysbiosis, could lead to disease pathogenesis. Recent studies suggested that dysbiosis of human gut microbiome is associated with the inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancers, obesity, neurological disease, etc. The Human Gut Microbiome Atlas represents metagenome-wide association studies of 20 diseases and presents the susceptible species of a given disease. Therefore, details of dysbiosis in of the microbiome can be explored together with gene richness and demographics of each cohort.