Geographical distribution

Here the global map of human gut microbiome of health and disease were presented among 20 different countries of five continents, including westernized and non-westernized countries, such as Fiji, Tanzania, Madagascar, etc. Each country could be presented with the list of disease-associated species and region-enriched species. For example, in China, disease-susceptible species can be found among Ankylosing spondylitis, Behcet's disease, Cardiovascular disease, Crohn's disease, Gestational diabetes mellitus, Liver cirrhosis, Rheumatoid arthritis, and Type 2 diabetes.
Country Code Cohorts
Austria AUT Healthy (hgma397, hgma398)

Colon adenoma (hgma400, hgma401)
Colorectal cancer (hgma412)
China CHN Healthy (hgma501, hgma505, hgma506, hgma509, hgma515, hgma517)

Ankylosing spondylitis (hgma09)
Behcet's disease (hgma52)
Cardiovascular disease (hgma10)
Colorectal cancer (hgma413)
Crohn's disease (hgma06)
Gestational diabetes (hgma12)
Liver cirrhosis (hgma20)
Rheumatoid arthritis (hgma31)
Type 2 diabetes (hgma02)
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (hgma409)
Denmark DNK Healthy (hgma508)

Obesity (hgma25)
Fiji FJI Healthy (hgma49)

Finland FIN Healthy (hgma507)

Type 1 diabetes (hgma21)
France FRA Colorectal cancer (hgma399)
Lung cancer (hgma26)
Renal cancer (hgma41)
Germany DEU Parkinson's disease (hgma08)
India IND Healthy (hgma50)

Colorectal cancer (hgma414)
Italy ITA Healthy (hgma411, hgma514)

Colon adenoma (hgma408)
Colorectal cancer (hgma46)
NAFLD (hgma40)
Japan JPN Healthy (hgma513)

Colon adenoma (hgma407)
Colorectal cancer (hgma45)
Country Code Cohorts
Luxembourg LUX Healthy (hgma511)

Type 1 diabetes (hgma35)
Type 2 diabetes (hgma406)
Madagascar MDG Healthy (hgma42)

Mongolia MNG Healthy (hgma33)

Peru PER Healthy (hgma32)

Spain ESP Healthy (hgma405)

Crohn's disease (hgma17)
Type 2 diabetes (hgma53)
Ulcerative colitis (hgma404)
Sweden SWE Healthy (hgma402, hgma500)

Atherosclerosis (hgma01)
Impaired glucose tolerance (hgma14)
Type 2 diabetes (hgma403)
Thailand THA Healthy (hgma410)

United Kingdom GBR Healthy (hgma39, hgma502, hgma503, hgma512, hgma516)

Colorectal cancer (hgma415, hgma44)
Liver cirrhosis (hgma300)
United Republic of Tanzania TZA Healthy (hgma37)

United States of America USA Healthy (hgma36, hgma43, hgma504, hgma510)

Acute diarrhea (hgma48)
Chronic fatigue syndrome (hgma34)
Colorectal cancer (hgma11)
Melanoma (hgma03)
NAFLD (hgma07)

Region Enrichment

Individual gut microbiome is shaped by interactions with many environmental factors, which can be represented by their origins of geography. We reanalysed gut metagenome samples of healthy subjects and identified three distinct clusters of geography, (1) European countries, (2) non-westernized countries, and (3) other industrialized countries (i.e. China, Japan, and US). It is clearly suggesting that human gut microbiome can be uniquely determined by respective resident environment niche.

Cluster analysis of gut metagenome samples for different countries

We also identified microbial species differentially enriched between westernized and non-westernized countries. For example, many Prevotella and Faecalibacterium spp. were highly enriched among non-westernized countries, whereas Bacteroides spp. and some Firmicutes, including Clostridium phoceensis, Anaerobutyricum hallii, and Anaerostipes hadrus, were highly enriched among westernized countries. Therefore, such clear distinctions suggest that our understanding of microbiome in health and disease needs to be in the scope of its own environmental niche, thereby necessitating the identification of “region-enriched” species of human gut microbiome.

Heatmap of different microbial species for different countries

To provide detailed enrichment of microbial species by geography, we performed comparative studies among healthy subjects from different countries and identified “region-enriched” species (i.e. MGS) by effect size 0.3 in more than six countries to compare. We found many non-westernized countries harbours a large number of unique sets of different region-enriched microbial species, whereas some industrialized countries, such as China, Japan, and US, harbours relatively fewer numbers of unique sets of region-enriched species. HGMA users can explore region-enriched species by countries by clicking the coloured countries of the World map on the top of the page and look into compositional and functional characteristics of respective species by clicking each species from the list of region-enriched species.

Venn diagram of Region-enriched microbial species