A common chronic metabolic disorder is type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), which accounts for 5-10 percent of all diabetes diagnoses (Daneman, 2006). This disease is characterized by the loss of pancreatic β-cells, culminating in deficient insulin production (Li, Huang, & Gao, 2017).
According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) approximately 425 million people are affected, and its incidence continues to increase worldwide. Various factors are involved in the development of T1DM such as genome, diet and gut microbiome (Han et al., 2018). Of these factors, gut microbiota has been shown to influence the development of T1DM. Studies in humans suggest that individuals have a decrease in microbiota diversity and intestinal dysbiosis which is characterized by a loss of beneficial organisms. However, the exact mechanism that causes these alterations in the gut microbiota remains to be elucidated (Tai, Wong, & Wen, 2015).