About 85% of all lung cancers are non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is also the main lung cancer type found in never-smokers. Smoking is by far the leading risk factor for lung cancer, but also exposure to radon, secondhand smoke, asbestos, chromium, nickel, beryllium, soot, tar, and air pollution. Another relevant factor is family history of lung cancer. NSCLCs are relatively insensitive to chemotherapy or radiation. When possible, they are primarily treated by surgical resection. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are still used, especially when surgery is not possible. More recently, Pembrolizumab antibody immunotherapy has been included in the treatment of NSCLC, which has been found to be particularly effective in patients with an indicative active endogenous T-cell response in the tumor microenvironment.
Gut microbiota plays an important role in shaping the systemic immune responses. A number of studies have shown that certain bacteria or bacterial products can modulate systemic inflammation and antitumor immunity, and interact with specific immune components that influence the synthesis of regulatory cytokines. Furthermore, cigarette smoke, one of the main lung cancer causes, has been found to affect the gastrointestinal tract by enhancing intestinal inflammation, and to ultimately affect the immune response.
hgma26 - Lung cancer - France